KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

Prepared for the Karawatha Forest Protection Society Inc.

Written by David Gasteen, Field Officer, Brisbane Region Environment Council

Submission and Ecological Assessment of Remnant Forest in Kuraby,

North of Compton Road, Opposite Karawatha Forest Reserve.





KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

Submission and Ecological Assessment of Remnant Forest in Kuraby,

North of Compton Road, Opposite Karawatha Forest Reserve.

SUMMARY

Regional Significance of Kuraby Forest Complex.

+High visual qualities, with scenic mountain views along sandstone ridgeline with large sandstone boulder outcrops and open forest and woodland of Eucalyptus baileyana and E. planchoniana with heath understorey; including very large old growth trees with a restricted distribution and many species of flora and fauna with high regional ecological significance.

+The Kuraby bushland is very valuable for its healthy and extensive forests which are an essential core area which is an important wildlife refuge and corridor function using creeks and forest linkages to Karawatha Forest and urban matrix to Bulimba Creek and associated bushland.

+Dr Carla Catterall has clearly highlighted the need to retain large core forest because they are fast diminishing and accompanied by a lack of ecological planning that fails to incorporate linkages of bushland remnants. After all, these forests are the essential lungs of Brisbane City.

+This ridgeline also forms the important catchment boundary between north-flowing tributaries of the Bulimba Creek system, and eastern catchment has east-flowing tributaries of the Spring Creek/Slacks Creek/Logan River system.

+A permanent spring which feeds the Spring Creek/Slacks Creek system with numerous permanent ponds, and wet swampy areas which provide excellent aquatic fauna habitats for fish, frogs, crustaceans, reptiles and insects.

+Many old growth trees, including Eucalyptus microcorys, E. racemosa and E. baileyana as well as standing dead trees with numerous hollows that provide vital fauna habitat that includes refuge, roosting and breeding sites for owl, bats, parrot family, kookaburra, dollar bird, possum and gliders.

+Areas of spectacular sandstone outcrops overlooking Spring Creek and rocky screed surface, and steep drainage lines and gullies with sandstone and gravelly surface which are highly prone to erosion when disturbed by trail bikes and four wheel drive vehicles.

Conclusions

+Despite these outstanding features, State Government owned land was wrongfully zoned future urban in the 1970's without a rigorous ecological assessment. Both BCC and the State Government are parties to the strategy of ESD: Ecologically Sustainable Development. However, this can only be redressed by a concerted effort by BCC and State Government planners to ensure the long-term security of tenure.

+There has been some commitment by BCC to protect the Kuraby forest by acquisition of environmentally significant portion of Timbertop Estate, north-east of spring and Spring Creek.

+Both Kuraby forest and Spring Creek are listed in the Karawatha Management Plan as a wildlife limkage and refugia to Bulimba Creek and remnant forests in Wally Tate Park. The significance of Kuraby forest for south-east Queensland was further highlighted by Kordas and Catterall, and also Dr David Stewarts fauna report on Karawatha.

Executive Summary


KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

n Dr Catterall has also highlighted the loss of forest habitat to continued clearing for development which represents a significant loss of flora and fauna diversity. This is in spite of the recognition that these core forests represent the lungs of the city of Brisbane and need to be preserved.

+Similarly, the IGAE: Inter-Governmental Agreement on the Environment, with the major focus upon the maintenance of ecological processes, needs to be implemented; including the protection of creek catchments and forests from changes in zoning and wholesale clearing for development.

+The National Strategy for Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity was agreed upon and ratified by all the State Premiers on 18-6-1993 Conservation of Biological Diversity. It is essential that the current State Government also supports this National Agreement.

+Currently, there is no guarantee that State Government owned land will not be subject to future development and land clearing, because it is not subject to BCC recommendation for inclusion of Kuraby forest in an Urban Nature Park.

+Any further development of the remaining catchment of Spring Creek (ridgeline and adjoining gully networks), will have a detrimental impact upon significant flora and fauna, especially reducing the quality of available habitat (refugia, breeding and foraging). Ultimately, this will limit the potential for dispersal to Karawatha Forest Reserve and remnant forests in the Bulimba Creek catchment.

Significant Flora

+Kuraby bushland contains a plant described by the staff of the Brisbane Herbarium as extremely rare in the Brisbane region: Xylomelum salicinum (coastal woody pear). This plant was last collected from Sunnybank, Eight Mile Plains area in 1918, and now probably gone the way of urban development. It was not recorded in Karawatha, Paratz or Toohey Forest and therefore has very high regional conservation significance.

The species listed by Department of Environment in `Native plants subject to the Nature Conservation legislation' only refers to the floristry trade, and not to species that are poorly conserved and under threat from development.

RE (Restricted plants), RE,F (restricted plants), where control is for harvesting and trade in cut flowers and foliage only. Whole plants and propagating material such as seeds are not intended to be covered.

RE (Restricted plants) are Gleichenia dicarpa (coral fern), Sticherus flabellatus (shiny umbrella fern), Exocarpos cupressiformis (native cherry), Xanthorrhoea macronema (bottlebrush grass tree), and Xanthorrhoea latifolia (flat-leaved grass tree). RE,F (restricted plants) are Banksia integrifolia (coastal banksia), Pultenaea villosa (kerosene bush), Lepironia articulata (grey reed), and Leptospermum polygalifolium (wild may).

+Reports by Thompson and Kordas on Karawatha Reserve have identified several plant alliances and plant species as having regional significance, because of their restricted distribution - Melaleuca wetlands, Eucalyptus carnea community and E. planchoniana/E. baileyana community

+Rare with restricted distribution: Daviesia wyattiana (long-leaved bitter-pea) and Acacia juncifolia (rush-like wattle).

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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

+Very restricted and patchy distribution: E. baileyana (Bailey's stringybark) and E. planchoniana (Planchon's stringybark)

+Restricted distribution: Eucalyptus tindaliae (Queensland white mahogany), E. carnea (broad-leaved white mahogany), E. seeana (narrow-leaved red gum), E. henryi (large-leaved spotted gum), and E. siderophloia (grey ironbark)

+Locally uncommon with a restricted distribution: Glochidion sumatranum (umbrella cheese tree)

+Locally common, with a restricted distribution: Angophora woodsiana (smudgee)

+Other species with restricted distribution and significance are: E. racemosa (scribbly gum), Gompholobium latifolium (glory bush-pea), Daviesia umbellulata, Persoonia cornifolia (broad-leaf geebung), Lycopodium cernuum (club moss), Gahnia clarkei (tall saw-sedge), Hakea florulenta (three-veined hakea), Echinostephia aculeata (prickly tape vine), Acacia suaveolens (sweet wattle), Trachymene incisa (native parsnip).

+A permanent spring with spongy sand and peat, a dense shrub layer of Leptospermum polygalifolium, with Restricted ferns: Sticherus flabellatus (shiny umbrella fern), Gleichenia dicarpa (pouched coral fern); and uncommon ferns Lindsaea microphylla (lacy wedge fern) and Lygodium microphyllum (climbing maidenhair fern). Unusual club moss (Lycopodium cernuum), Gahnia clarkei (tall saw-sedge), rushes present.

+Melaleuca quinquenervia dominant forest on swampy section of Spring Creek, with Glochidion sumatranum, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Melaleuca linariifolia and Lophostemon suaveolens; with tall sedge Gahnia clarkei, and ferns: Calochlaena dubia (false bracken), Christella dentata (binung), Blechnum indicum (water fern). Wetland alliances like these are poorly preserved in the Brisbane region.

Significant Fauna

+Kuraby bushland has high environmental significance and vitally important for a diverse range of fauna species as has been observed by scientists including 33 bird species in brief walks, with spotlighting observations of Petauroides volans (greater glider), Petaurus norfolcensis (squirrel glider), Phascolarctos cinereus (koala) and numerous bandicoot diggings and fauna habitat.

+Other species of regional significance are likely to occur (pers comm DOE) because of similar habitats to Karawatha, and due to the large numbers of tree and branch hollows, including dead trees providing nesting sites and core forest habitat providing adequate food resources.

+Species include Vulnerable Calyptorhynchus lathami (glossy black cockatoo) and Ninox strenua (powerful owl), Species of Special Interest Tachyglossus aculeatus (Short-beaked echidna) and Phascolarctos cinereus (koala), Petaurus breviceps (sugar glider): likely due to the large numbers of preferred food trees (bloodwoods and banksia), and Litoria brevipalmata (green-thighed frog); because of shelter in sandstone outcrops adjoining drainage lines and swamps.

Executive Summary

KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

Submission and Ecological Assessment of Remnant Forest North of Compton Road, Opposite Karawatha Forest Reserve

Introduction

Kuraby forest has many outstanding qualities, and the early origins of the name Kuraby are explained in the following passage from Beryl Roberts `Stories of the Southside' (Volume 1).

"Kuraby" is an Aboriginal word meaning "a place of many springs". The district was first known as "Spring Creek". Originally the area now known as Kuraby was very marshy. Seepage water from this area finds its way into Slacks Creek which flows on to join the Logan River and also north into Bulimba Creek and thence into the Brisbane River."

The western saddle provides the source of a spring-fed marsh which seasonally flows into the Spring Creek/Slacks Creek system featuring permanent ponds and Melaleuca wetlands, with a wide diversity of flora and aquatic/terrestrial fauna habitats.

Unfortunately, the spring is vulnerable because of its location between QEC powerline and newly cleared area for a water main, resulting in numerous tracks and erosion severing the creekline. The opportunity should be taken by the authorities to revegetate these disturbed areas as a matter of urgency and to restore public faith in their commitment to environmental management.

This large core remnant forest is bounded by private property to the north east to Allbutt Street, Compton Road to the south, and southern Brisbane bypass to the west. This area has regionally significant conservation values worthy of incorporation into the Karawatha Forest Reserve (National Estate status); and thereby providing longterm viability for flora and fauna species.

A major portion of Kuraby core forest is owned by Dept. Local Government and Housing and private property, with a small portion purchased by BCC; and therefore has limited security of tenure which will ultimately threaten the survival of regionally significant flora and fauna species. Kuraby forest has excellent examples of restricted plant community Eucalyptus planchoniana and E. baileyana, (including old growth tree pictured right), and also features a diverse heath understorey.

An integral component of the Kuraby forest is the valuable catchment protection and opportunity for linkage of remnant urban forest matrix from State Archives land along tributatries of Bulimba Creek, through swampy marshes and Melaleuca wetlands through the Wally Tate Reserve.




1200 mm Old Growth E. Baileyana

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Physical Characteristics, Soils and Geology

This area has high visual qualities of forest and mountain views along sandstone ridgelines with areas of spectacular sandstone outcrops overlooking Spring Creek, which has sharply dissected gullies and drainage lines with steep gravelly surface. These are highly prone to erosion from disturbances such as vegetation removal, frequent fires, trail bikes and four wheel drives.

The dominant high ridgeline extends from Compton Road around to Allbutt Street, and forms the important catchment boundary between Bulimba Creek to the north and tributaries of the Spring Creek/Slack's Creek system to the south and south east. This also includes the source of spring for Spring Creek, with several permanent ponds and low lying areas downstream with wetlands.

The dominant geology and rock types in Kuraby are described by Beckmann, Hubble and Thompson in `The Soil Landscapes of Brisbane and South-eastern Environs' as: Woodridge (Red-yellow podzolic soils, with gleyed podzolic soils and lateritic podzolic soils, low hills of sandstones and shales), Sunnybank (lateritic red earths with some lateritic podzolic soils on undulating plateau and slopes on tertiary sediments).

Description of Kuraby Forest

These areas are broadly based on discreet areas within the different catchment boundaries, and some exhibit distinctive vegetation types based upon particular soil types.

Area 1 Western Ridgeline adjoining QEC Power Easement and western catchment of Spring Creek/Slacks Creek Private Property

Physical features:

High visual qualities of mountain and forest views along sandstone ridgeline which includes large sandstone boulder outcrops and forms the important catchment boundary of north flowing tributaries of

the Bulimba Creek system, and eastern flowing Spring Creek into the Slacks Creek/Logan River system.

The sandstone derived top-soils and lateritic red earths are dominant along the western ridgeline and plateau towards the saddle between western and eastern ridgelines; which is the source of Spring Creek.

Floristic Characteristics and Structure:

This area features many interesting and unique species, including the very restricted and patchy distribution of E. baileyana (Bailey's stringybark, see photo with woody pear) and E. planchoniana (Planchon's stringybark), including several large old growth trees. There is a well developed low tree and shrub layer including Xylomelum salicinum (coastal woody pear: see photo), which is extremely rare in the Brisbane region.

This species was last collected from the Sunnybank, Eight Mile Plains area in 1918, now gone the way of urban development, and only occurs on Moreton Island, Russell Island, Port Curtis and Wide Bay/Burnett regions, which are widely separated geographical areas and very distinctive from Kuraby; highlighting its ecological and regional significance.

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Other species of regional significance of restricted distribution Eucalyptus tindaliae (Queensland white mahogany), E. carnea (broad-leaved white mahogany), E. seeana (narrow-leaved red gum), E. siderophloia (grey ironbark), Corymbia henryi (large-leaved spotted gum), and shrubs Acacia hispidula, A. suaveolens (sweet wattle), and Rare with restricted distribution: Daviesia wyattiana (long-leaf bitter-pea) and Acacia juncifolia (rush-like wattle). Other shrubs worthy of mention are Pultenaea euchila (large-flower bush-pea), Persoonia cornifolia (broad-leaf geebung), and Xanthorrhoea macronema (bottlebrush grass tree).

Other canopy trees include Eucalyptus microcorys (tallowwood), Corymbia trachyphloia (brown bloodwood), and locally common, with a restricted distribution: Angophora woodsiana (smudgee), and several large Lophostemon confertus (brush box) that are subjected to a high fire regime with obvious fire scars; with many young regenerating small trees and regrowth from fires.

Further diversity of heath species are Boronia rosmarinifolia (forest boronia), Leptospermum trinervium (paperbark wallum tea-tree), Haemodorum austroqueenslandicum (blood lily), Trachymene incisa (native parsnip), Lomatia silaifolia (crinkle bush), Patersonia sericea (purple flag iris), Hakea florulenta (three-veined hakea), Schizaea bifida (forked comb fern), Schizaea dichotoma, Gompholobium latifolium (glory bush-pea), and Xanthorrhoea latifolia (flat-leaved grass tree).

Habitat Values:

The ridgeline with rock outcrops and shelter, and dense areas of understorey and diverse grass species offers excellent habitat opportunities for a range of ground dwelling fauna including wallabies, antechinus, dunnart, bandicoot, echidna and reptiles. Standing dead trees, branch and tree hollows provide nesting sites for gliders, possums, owls, the parrot family, and also kookaburra and kingfisher.

Both koala and greater glider feed on the leaves of tallowwood, narrow-leaved red gum, ironbark and several stringybarks; and squirrel gliders have been observed feeding on flowering banksias on the ridgeline and nesting nearby (Queensland University study).

Threats:

Any clearing for development will destroy a healthy population of rare Xylomelum salicinum (coastal woody pear). The presence of this significant species should provide the trigger to prevent development and ensure it is protected by secure habitat tenure.

The western boundary has suffered major disturbance from clearing of vegetation and dumping of rubbish during power line easement construction and access road, allowing uncontrolled access by trail bike and four wheel drives; and made worse by more recent water main installation. Any future management of this area must include fencing the power easement and rehabilitation to prevent further degradation of fragile spring and spring-fed tributary.

Area 2 Spring-fed Spring Creek, and Slacks Creek Riparian Zone

BCC Portion, mostly Private Property

Physical features:

There is a unique permanent spring which commences to the east of power easement in a saddle at the northern edge of the western ridgeline as a damp, peaty spring constantly flowing downstream, and featuring several plant species of significance.

The Spring Creek tributary has a narrow riparian plant community confined by the steep slopes, gullies and drainage lines, with a sandy stream-bed from the deposition of sandstone derived soils; and several permanent ponds (see photo over page).

Downstream, the low relief contours has allowed moisture and sediment to accumulate and maintain a melaleuca wetland with prominent lower canopy tree Glochidion sumatranum.

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On private property downstream from the wetland, there has been largescale clearing of vegetation, leaving only a narrow riparian linkage of vegetation between Spring Creek and junction of Slacks Creek; with minor regrowth of native species and some weeds.

Floristic Characteristics and Structure:

The spring has an interesting closed low shrub layer of Leptospermum polygalifolium (wild may), with occasional Melaleuca quinquenervia, Lophostemon suaveolens, Melastoma affine (blue tongue), and dense ground layer of tall Juncus spp. (rushes), Gahnia clarkei and Drosera peltata (sundew) on margins.

A prominent feature of both the spring and discreet areas on the creekline were the presence of uncommon ferns Gleichenia dicarpa (pouched coral fern), Sticherus flabellatus (shiny umbrella fern), Lindsaea microphylla (lacy wedge fern) and Lygodium microphyllum (climbing maidenhair fern); with uncommon Lycopodium cernuum (creeping club moss).

There were some outstanding features downstream from spring of flowering Hovea acutifolia (pointed leaf hovea), Pultenaea villosa (hairy bush-pea), Daviesia wyattiana (long-leaf bitter pea), Gahnia clarkei (tall saw-sedge) and Xanthorrhoea latifolia.

Paperbark forest on swampy sections of Spring Creek is dominated by Melaleuca quinquenervia (paper-barked tea-tree), with tall Melaleuca linariifolia (flax-leaved paperbark), Lophostemon suaveolens (swamp box), and lower canopy of locally uncommon with a restricted distribution: Glochidion sumatranum (umbrella cheese tree or buttonwood).

Large dense areas were dominated by a range of ferns including Christella dentata (binung), Cyclosorus interruptus, Calochlaena dubia (false bracken), Blechnum indicum (water fern), and vines Smilax australis (barbed-wire vine), Cayratia clematidea (slender grape), and Lygodium microphyllum (climbing maidenhair).

Freshwater wetland alliances with the diversity of the Spring Creek catchment due to the sandstone derived soils, are not well represented in the Brisbane region.

The narrow riparian vegetation has eucalypts from adjoining plant alliances of Eucalyptus resinifera (red mahogany); and eucalypts with a restricted distribution: E. tindaliae (Queensland white mahogany), E. carnea (broad-leaved white mahogany), E. seeana (narrow-leaved red gum), E. siderophloia (grey ironbark).

E. tereticornis (Queensland blue gum/forest red gum) occurs on the lower creekline and adjoining alluvial soils.

An array of diverse shrubs were present on the steep sloping banks adjoining the creek line including Gompholobium latifolium (glory wedge pea),

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Boronia rosmarinifolia (forest boronia), Rare with restricted distribution: Daviesia wyattiana (long-leaved bitter-pea), Hovea acutifolia (pointed leaf hovea), Hakea florulenta (three-veined hakea), Pultenaea villosa (kerosene bush) and Xanthorrhoea latifolia (flat-leaved grass tree).

Habitat Values:

This area has a very unique and constantly flowing spring, which is sheltered by dense vegetation and provides an excellent habitat for small ground mammals, frogs, numerous flocks of mixed birds (wrens, fantails, white-eyes, honeyeaters, finches and warblers), Eastern water dragon, bearded dragon and skinks.

The more fertile soils along lower western tributary of Spring Creek enables eucalypt species to flourish including grey gum, tallowwood, forest red gum, ironbark, bloodwood and stringybarks. Many of these are preferred food trees of koala and greater glider (both sited during spotlighting), as well as nectar feeders: possums, fruit bats, gliders, birds and insects.

Recent bird surveys of the riparian area and adjoining habitats revealed 33 species, including personal observations of roosting wood ducks, rainbow bee-eater, scarlet honeyeater feeding on flowering banksias, dollar bird, rainbow lorikeet, channel-billed cuckoo, spangled drongo, white-browed tree creeper, black-faced cuckoo-shrike, rufous whistler, red-backed and blue wrens.

The dense understorey of sedges, reeds, bracken and other ferns, herbs and grass species provide forage, habitat and shelter for wallabies, bandicoots, reptiles, rats and frogs. Standing dead trees,

branch and tree hollows provide nesting sites for gliders, possums, bats, owls, parrot family, kookaburra and kingfisher, and dollar bird.
Threats:

The area around the spring has suffered major

disturbance from clearing of vegetation and dumping of

rubbish during power line easement construction and access road, allowing uncontrolled access by trail bike and four wheel drives; and made worse by more recent water main installation severing the creek line.

Any future management of this area must include fencing the power easement and rehabilitation/revegetation to prevent further degradation of fragile spring and spring-fed tributary.

Probably due to increased sediment and higher nutrient levels from excess water runoff, there was a higher weed proliferation from blue billygoat weed, paspalum, water pepper, groundsel bush, thickhead, morning glory, cobbler's pegs and siratro.

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Area 3 Eastern ridgeline (spring to Allbutt/Allingham Street) and Eastern catchment of Spring Creek BCC Conservation Zone/mostly private property

Physical features:

High sandstone ridgeline with large sandstone boulder outcrops and areas of exposed rock and gravelly surface, with western and south-western facing slopes and drainage lines to Spring Creek.

There are changes in soil type in the middle and southern portion of this area which corresponds to the boundaries of different eucalypt alliances and of the changes in understorey stratum.

Floristic Characteristics and Structure:

Tall open forest with dominant ridgeline featuring the unique plant community of very restricted and patchy distribution: E. baileyana (Bailey's stringybark) and E. planchoniana (Planchon's stringybark); including several large old growth trees. Both of these species occurred on lower slopes between drainage lines in the middle of forest.

Other common trees along the ridgeline are Corymbia trachyphloia (brown bloodwood), E. umbra (broad-leaved white mahogany), Angophora woodsiana (smudgee): locally common, with a restricted distribution, with occasional Lophostemon confertus (brush box) and Allocasuarina torulosa (corky-barked forest oak).

The understorey was dominated by wallum-heath understorey and sparse grass cover with Leptospermum trinervium (paperbark wallum tea-tree), Leucopogon juniperinus (prickly beard-heath), Boronia rosmarinifolia (forest boronia), Patersonia sericea (purple flag-iris), Acrotriche aggregata (ground berry), and Notelaea ovata (netted mock-olive); as well as occasional grass trees.

Some of the lower slopes have a dense understorey of Pultenaea villosa (kerosene bush) and drainage lines are characterised by

Leptospermum polygalifolium (wild may), with occasional Melaleuca quinquenervia, Lophostemon suaveolens, Melastoma affine (blue tongue), and ferns in deeper gullies and moist sheltered areas.

The middle to lower slopes have a eucalypt forest mosaic with restricted distribution: Eucalyptus tindaliae (Queensland white mahogany), E. siderophloia (grey ironbark), E. carnea (broad-leaved white mahogany), and E. seeana (narrow-leaved red gum); with E. umbra, E. microcorys (tallowwood), E. propinqua (grey gum) and E. resinifera (red mahogany). Some extend into the narrow riparian system in association with diverse ecotones.

Habitat Values:

The ridgeline offers excellent opportunities for fauna from rock outcrops and shelter, and standing dead trees with branch and tree hollows providing nesting sites for glider, possum, bat, and several bird species.

The diverse range of tree species has high forage value for herbivores, koala and greater glider, from tallow-wood, Qld. white mahogany, grey gum, and red mahogany. Nectar feeders such as birds, bats, possums, sugar, feathertail and squirrel gliders would utilise these forests.

Areas with an open understorey have several grass species that are favoured by red-necked and swamp wallabies, with the latter also favouring a range of herbs, barb-wire vine and bracken fern, usually on lower catchment areas adjoining drainage lines.

There were several flattened grass areas on the lower slopes adjoining drainage lines that were temporarily utilised for rest, shelter and protection especially areas among low shrubs.

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Threats:

Some of this ridgeline was purchased by BCC to prevent further encroachement from Timbertop Estate, however, it will do little to protect the ridgeline and upper catchment from any further development; or protect the sensitive habitats around the spring from uncontrolled access by trail bike and four wheel drives. In particular, there are several tracks accessing the ridgelines and also down slope to the creekline and power easement; which is causing rill and gully erosion, and reducing the potential for native plants to regenerate.

Area 4 Western lower catchment of Spring Creek

Private property

Physical features: This area has a distinctive vegetation alliance from several factors including characteristic duplex soils of sandy top soil and medium clay sub-soil, low relief and minimal undulations, high water table adjoining Spring Creek, and probable reaction to logging and tree clearing in the past.

Floristic Characteristics and Structure:

The lower portion comprises a low open forest to layered woodland to 16m, dominated by low tree with restricted distribution: E.seeana (narrow-leaved red gum), with occasional upper stratum trees of E. resinifera (red mahogany), E. umbra (broad-leaved white mahogany), and Corymbia intermedia (pink bloodwood).

The middle stratum included Lophostemon suaveolens (swamp box), Callistemon salignus (paperbark-bottlebrush), Allocasuarina littoralis (black she-oak), some forming dense regrowth stands following removal of mature trees and fires, and some remnant Melaleuca quinquenervia (paper-barked tea tree).

The lower stratum reflected previous clearing with regrowth species including Leptospermum polygalifolium (wild may), Acacia fimbriata (fringed wattle), Acacia leiocalyx (red-stemmed black wattle), Pultenaea retusa (blunt-leaved bush pea), with common herbs and ground cover of wiry panic, wire grass, graceful grass, twining glycine, erect guinea flower and purple iris.

E. racemosa (Scribbly gum) Distribution

This vegetation type occurs in a restricted section of Area 4, with a sandstone derived soil type and open eucalypt woodland due to past clearing, with upper stratum dominated by E. racemosa (scribbly gum), E. umbra, E. resinifera (red mahogany), E. seeana (narrow-leaved red gum), Corymbia intermedia (pink bloodwood), and occasional tree with very restricted and patchy distribution: E. planchoniana (Planchon's stringybark).

These plant alliances are characterised by a sparse understorey of low trees, shrubs, grasses and herbs including Alphitonia excelsa, Persoonia cornifolia, Banksia integrifolia (coast banksia), Acacia falcata, Acacia concurrens, Xanthorrhoea macronema, Xanthorrhoea latifolia, Pultenaea villosa, Themeda triandra, Entolasia stricta, Hibbertia stricta, Glycine tabacina and Pimelia linifolia (slender rice flower).

Adjoining this area was a tall forest with Eucalyptus tindaliae (Queensland white mahogany), E. microcorys (tallowwood), E. propinqua (grey gum), E. umbra (broad-leaved white mahogany), E. resinifera (red mahogany), and Corymbia trachyphloia (brown bloodwood); with occasional E. baileyana (Bailey's stringybark), and E. planchoniana (Planchon's stringybark).

Habitat Values:

This area provides for a diverse range of fauna because of the numbers of preferred food trees (tallowwood, grey gum and stringybarks) for herbivores: koala and greater glider. The diversity of habitat includes flowering eucalypts, angophora and banksias, dense understorey areas providing shade, shelter and protection; and hollow branches provide nesting sites for glider, possum, owl, parrot family, dollar bird, kookaburra, kingfisher.

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There have been spotlighting and radio-tracking surveys which have identified Petaurus norfolcensis (squirrel glider) feeding on flowering banksias which occur between Area 4 and the ridgeline (Qld University study of Karawatha and adjoining Kuraby forest).

This area of remaining forest provides valuable habitat for wallaby, possum, glider, goanna, skinks and small mammals, as well as a diverse range of bird species.

Threats:

Major threats is from the uncontrolled access off Compton Road which is well abused by trail bike and vehicles, including the illegal dumping of rubbish and deliberate fires; which has a negative impact on the integrity of the area and shows a total disregard for the protection of these unique forest ecosystems.

The uncontrolled access has caused severe erosion from steep hill climbing onto the western ridgeline, completely stripping vegetation and topsoil and preventing natural regeneration.

Area 5 Tall Open Forest southern catchment Slacks Creek

Private property

Physical features:

This area features an intact section of tall forest within a more sheltered southern basin below western ridgeline that has a more fertile and deeper soil and less exposure to the fire regimes.

Floristic Characteristics and Structure:

The major feature is the age, height and diverse tall eucalypt forest canopy to 25 metres with some very restricted and patchy distribution of Eucalyptus baileyana (Bailey's stringybark) and E. planchoniana (Planchon's stringybark), and large old growth E. microcorys (tallowwood). Trees with restricted distribution include E. tindaliae (Queensland white mahogany), E. carnea (broad-leaved white mahogany), E. seeana (narrow-leaved red gum), Corymbia henryi (large-leaved spotted gum), and E. siderophloia (grey ironbark).

Other diverse eucalypts include Corymbia citriodora (spotted gum), E. propinqua (grey gum), E. microcorys (tallowwood), E. resinifera (red mahogany), Corymbia intermedia and Corymbia trachyphloia (pink and brown bloodwood), E. tereticornis, E. umbra and E. racemosa. Low trees include Lophostemon suaveolens (swamp box), Angophora leiocarpa (rusty gum), and locally common, with a restricted distribution: Angophora woodsiana (smudgee).

The middle to lower stratum includes Allocasuarina torulosa (corky-barked forest she-oak), Alphitonia excelsa (soap tree), Acacia aulacocarpa (hickory wattle) and occasional Acacia maidenii (Maiden's wattle), indicative of changing vegetation.

Frequently occurring ground cover plants include Dianella caerulea (pale blue flax-lily), Lepidosperma laterale (variable saw-sedge), Lomandra multiflora (many-flowered mat-rush), Gahnia

aspera (saw-sedge), Hibbertia stricta (erect guinea flower), with Themeda, Aristida and Entolasia species (native grasses).

Habitat Values:

This area provides an abundance of preferred and well utilised food trees for koala and greater glider (both observed during spotlighting surveys) feeding on leaves of tallowwood, grey gum, and stringybarks; and squirrel glider feeding on flowering banksias on and below ridgeline (Qld University study).

The occurrence of Allocasuarina torulosa provides a valuable food resource for the Vulnerable species Calyptorhynchus lathami (glossy black cockatoo), which has been observed in the adjoining Karawatha Forest. The diverse range of open forest habitat also favours the hunting range of Ninox strenua (powerful owl).

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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

The sheltered understorey of low shrubs, grass and herbage provides valuable habitat for wallaby, reptiles, small mammals, including Species of Special Interest Tachyglossus aculeatus (Short-beaked echidna); and several bird species.

Standing dead trees, branch and tree hollows provide nesting sites for gliders, possums, owls, parrot family, kookaburra and kingfisher, and dollar bird.

Threats:

This area is in good condition due to several deep drainage lines which have restricted uncontrolled access by trail bike and four wheel drives, with major impact being from frequent fire regimes,

which is preventing successional forest layering of understorey.

This area would greatly benefit from acquisition and fencing because it provides a valuable forest buffer to Compton Road and essential fauna linkage to Karawatha Forest.

Any further development of the remaining catchment of Spring Creek (ridgeline and adjoining gully networks), will have a detrimental impact upon significant plant species and reduce the habitat for fauna for effective breeding and movement from Karawatha Forest Reserve to Kuraby forest and network of creek corridors north of Compton Road.

The construction of the Southern Brisbane Bypass has separated the forest mosaics of Karawatha and Kuraby and the subsequent loss of valuable forest connection to Persse Road, thereby severing the upper catchments of Bulimba Creek.

Conclusions

n Despite these outstanding features, State Government owned land was wrongfully zoned future urban in the 1970's without a rigorous ecological assessment. Both BCC and the State Government are parties to the strategy of ESD: Ecologically Sustainable Development. However, this can only be redressed by a concerted effort by BCC and State Government planners to ensure the long-term security of tenure.

n There has been some commitment by BCC to protect the Kuraby forest by acquisition of environmentally significant portion of Timbertop Estate, north-east of spring and Spring Creek; mainly along ridgeline in an effort to limit development, rather than protecing the catchment.

n Both Kuraby forest and Spring Creek are listed in the Karawatha Management Plan as a wildlife linkage and refugia to Bulimba Creek catchment and remnant forests in Wally Tate Park. The significance of Kuraby forest for south-east Queensland was further highlighted by Kordas and Catterall, and also Dr David Stewart's fauna report on Karawatha.

n Dr Catterall has also highlighted the loss of forest habitat to continued clearing for development which represents a significant loss of flora and fauna diversity. This is in spite of the recognition that these core forests represent the lungs of the city of Brisbane and need to be preserved.

n Similarly, the IGAE: Inter-Governmental Agreement on the Environment, with the major focus upon the maintenance of ecological processes, needs to be implemented; including the protection of creek catchments and forests from changes in zoning and wholesale clearing for development.

n The National Strategy for Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity was agreed upon and ratified by all the State Premiers on 18-6-1993 Conservation of Biological Diversity. It is essential that the current State Government also supports this National Agreement.

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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

n At the time of writing this report, there appears to be no guarantee that State Government owned land will not be developed with extensive clearing of forest; and no BCC jurisdiction to include Kuraby forest into an Urban Nature Park (hopefully with habitat and ecological protection).

n Any further development of the remaining catchment of Spring Creek (ridgeline and adjoining gully networks), will have a detrimental impact upon significant flora and fauna, especially reducing the quality of available habitat (refugia, breeding and foraging). Ultimately, this will limit the potential for dispersal to Karawatha Forest Reserve and remnant forests in the Bulimba Creek catchment.

LIST OF PLANT SPECIES RECORDED FROM KURABY FOREST

LEGEND

Gf Growth form: (modified from Walker & Hopkins: p 64/1990),

"It is more important to establish a relative scale of dwarf to extremely tall common to all growth forms rather than argue about absolute size classes."

TT very tall tree (over 20 metres)

T tree (12-20 metres)

t small tree (3-12 metres)

S tall shrub (2-8 metres)

s low shrub (less than 2 metres).

f forb: herbaceous/slightly woody, annual/perennial

l liane (vine or creeper)

e epiphyte (fern)

g grass

v sedge

r rush

o orchid

x Xanthorrhoea (grass tree)

Ab Abundance (based upon regional distribution)

r rare (based upon rare and/or threatened species)

u uncommonly occurring

o occasionally occurring

c commonly occurring

a abundantly occurring (covering dense area)

* introduced plant (non-indigenous species)

VA Vegetation Alliance (refer to map)

Area 1 Western Ridgeline adjoining QEC Power Easement and western catchment of Spring Creek/Slacks Creek

Area 2 Spring-fed Spring Creek, and Slacks Creek Riparian Zone

Area 3 Eastern ridgeline (spring to Allbutt/Allingham Street) and Eastern catchment of Spring Creek

Area 4 Western lower catchment of Spring Creek

Area 5 Tall Open Forest southern catchment Slacks Creek

Plant species have been arranged according to their plant orders

and divisions such as fern, monocotyledon and dicotyledon. Acknowledgement is extended to vegetation lists compiled by George Kordas and John Thompson for Karawatha area.

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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME LF Ab VA

PTEROPHYTA: FERNS

Adiantaceae

Adiantum aethiopicum maiden hair e o 2

Adiantum hispidulum rough maiden hair e u 2

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium australisicum bird's nest fern e u 2

Blechnaceae

Blechnum indicum swamp water fern e o 2

Blechnum cartilagineum gristle fern e u 3,5

Doodia caudata small rasp fern e o 2,3,5

Dennstaedtiaceae

Calochlaena dubia common ground fern e c/a 2,5

Pteridium esculentum bracken fern e c 1-5

Gleicheniaceae

Gleichenia dicarpa pouched coral fern e u 2

Sticherus flabellatus shiny umbrella fern e u 2

Lindsaeaceae

Lindsaea incisa wedge fern e u 1-4

Lindsaea linearis screw fern e o 2,3

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodium cernuum pine tree fern/wolf's foot e a 2 (spring)

Polypodiaceae

Platycerium bifurcatum elkhorn fern e u 2,3

Psilotaceae

Psilotum nudum skeleton fork-fern e u 1,3,5

Schizaeaceae

Lygodium microphyllum climbing maidenhair e o 2

Schizaea bifida forked comb fern e o 1,3,5

Schizaea dichotoma branched comb fern e u 1,3

Sinopteridaceae

Cheilanthes sieberi mulga fern e c 1,3,4,5

Thelypteridaceae

Christella dentata binung e c 1,5

Cyclosorus interruptus e u 2

MONOCOTYLEDONS: grass, sedge, rush, lily, mat-rush, grass tree

Agavaceae

Cordyline petiolaris broad-leaved palm lily s u 2

Araceae

Gymnostachys anceps settler's flax f c 2,5

Commelinaceae

Commelina cyanea wandering jew f u 1,5

Murdannia graminea grass lily f u 3,5

Cyperaceae

Baumea articulata jointed twig-rush r u 2

Fimbristylis cinnamometorum common fringe rush r o 2

Gahnia aspera red-fruited saw-sedge v c all

Gahnia clarkei tall saw-sedge v c 2

Lepidosperma laterale variable sword-sedge v o all

Lepironia articulata grey reed r u 2

Schoenus apogon club rush r u 2


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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME LF Ab VA

Haemodoraceae

Haemodorum austroqueenslandicum blood-root lily f o 1,3,4,5

Hydrocotylaceae

Hydrocotyle acutiloba pennywort f u 1,2,3

Iridaceae

Patersonia sericea purple flag iris f o 2,3,4

Juncaceae

Juncus krausii common rush r o 2,3

Juncus polyanthemus branching rush r o 2

Juncus usitatus reed r o 2

Liliaceae

Dianella caerulea blue flax-lily f c all

Laxmannia gracilis slender wire-lily f o 1,3,4,5

Thysanotus tuberosus common fringe-lily f u 1,3,4

Tricoryne anceps yellow rush-lily f o 2,3,4,5

Tricoryne elatior flat-stemmed rush-lily f o 1,2,3

Orchidaceae

Corybas acontifolius helmet orchid o u 2,3

Cymbidium madidum tree orchid o u 1,3,4

Geodorum pictum painted orchid o o 1,2,3,4

Dendrobium linguiforme tongue orchid o u 5

Dipodium variegatum hyacinth orchid o u 3

Philesiaceae

Eustrephus latifolius wombat berry l c all

Geitonoplesium cymosum scrambling lily l o 2,5

Philydraceae

Philydrum lanuginosum woolly waterlily aq o 2

Poaceae

Alloteropsis semialata cockatoo grass g c 2,3,4

Aristida benthamii wire grass g c 2,3,4

Aristida vagans three-awn spear grass g c 2,3,4

Cymbopogon refractus barbwire grass g c/o all

Dichelachne micrantha short-hair plume grass g o 2,3,4

Dichelachne parviflora small flower grass g c 1,2,5

Entolasia stricta wiry panic g c 2,3,4

Eragrostis sp. love grass g o 2,3,4

Imperata cylindrica blady grass g a 2,3,4

Oplismenus aemulus creeping creek grass g c 1,2,5

Ottochloa gracilima graceful grass g c/a 2,3,4,5

Panicum effusum hairy panic g o 3,4

Stipa pubescens spear grass g o 1,3,4,5

Themeda triandra kangaroo grass g a all

Smilacaceae

Smilax australis barb-wire vine l c 1,2,5

Smilax glyciphylla sweet sarsaparilla l u 1,3

Stylidiaceae

Stylidium graminifolium grassy trigger plant f u 1,3

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Lomandra laxa delicate mat-rush r u 3,4

Lomandra longifolia spiny-headed mat-rush r c 2,3,4,5

Lomandra multiflora many-flowered mat-rush r c 1,3,4,5

Xanthorrhoea latifolia flat-stemmed grass tree x o 1,2,3,5

Xanthorrhoea macronema bottle-brush grass tree x u 1,3


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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME LF Ab VA

DICOTYLEDONS: FLOWERING PLANTS

Acanthaceae

Pseuderanthemum variable love flower f u 2,5

Apiaceae

Trachymene incisa wild parsnip/native yam f o 2,3,4

Apocynaceae

Parsonsia straminea monkey rope l c all

Asteraceae

Emilia sonchifolia emilia f o all

Centrantherum muticum centrantherum f u 1,2,3

Helichrysum diosmifolium sago flower f/s o 1,3,5

Chrysocephalum apiculatum yellow buttons f o 1,3,4,5

Olearia nernstii jagged daisy bush s o 1,2,3,5

Vernonia cinerea vernonia f u 2,3

Bignoniaceae

Pandorea pandorana wonga vine l u 1,2,5

Campanulaceae

Lobelia purpurascens white root f c all

Wahlenbergia gracilis slender blue bell f o 2,3,4

Casuarinaceae

Allocasuarina littoralis black she-oak t c/a all

Allocasuarina torulosa corky-bark forest oak t c 2,3,5

Convolvulaceae

Polymeria calycina forest bindweed l o all

Dilleniaceae

Hibbertia aspera rough guinea flower f c 1,2,3,5

Hibbertia vestita hairy guinea flower f o 2,3,4

Hibbertia stricta erect guinea flower f c all

Droseraceae

Drosera peltata sundew f o 2

Epacridaceae

Monotoca scoparia prickly broom heath s u 1,3,4

Acrotriche aggregata striped ground-berry s o 2,3,4

Leucopogon juniperinus prickly beard-heath s o 1,2,3,4

Euphorbiaceae

Breynia oblongifolia coffee bush s o 1,2,3

Glochidion ferdinandi cheese tree t o 1,2,3

Glochidion sumatranum umbrella cheese tree t/T c 1,2

Petalostigma pubescens hairy quinine berry t o 1,3,4

Fabaceae

Desmodium rhytidophyllum rusty tick-trefoil l o 2,3,4

Glycine clandestina twining glycine l o 1,2,3

Gompholobium latifolium three-leaf wedge-pea f/s o 1,2

Gompholobium pinnatum pinnate wedge-pea f o 1,3,4

Hovea acutifolia pointed-leaf hovea s/S o 1,2,3,5

Daviesia ulicifolia prickly moses s u 2,3,4

Daviesia squarrosa prickly bush pea s c 2,3,4

Daviesia umbellulata northern bitter-pea s o 1,2,3

Daviesia wyattiana long-leaf bitter-pea S o/c 1,2,3

Hardenbergia violacea purple coral pea l o 2,3,4

Indigofera australis austral indigo s/S o 1,2,

Jacksonia scoparia native broom/dogwood S c 2,3,4

Pultenaea euchila large-flower bush-pea S c/o 1,2,3,5


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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME LF Ab VA

Pultenaea petiolaris trailing bush-pea s o 1,2

Pultenaea retusa blunt bush-pea s u 2,3,4

Pultenaea villosa hairy bush-pea/kerosene bush s o 2,3,4

Goodeniaceae

Goodenia bellidifolia rocket goodenia f c 1,2,3

Goodenia rotundifolia trailing star flower f c all

Velleia spathulata northern velleia f u 2,3,4

Lamiaceae

Plectranthus parviflorus cockspur flower f u 2,3

Westringea eremicola slender westringea s u 1,2,3

Lauraceae

Cassytha species dodder laurel l o 1,2,3

Melastomataceae

Melastoma affine blue tongue s o 1,2

Menispermaceae

Echinostephia aculeata spiny-stemmed tape vine l o 1,2,3

Stephania japonica var. discolor tape vine l o 1-3

Mimosaceae

Acacia aulacocarpa hickory wattle S/t c all

Acacia concurrens black wattle S/t c all

Acacia falcata sickle-shaped wattle s/S o 2,3,4

Acacia fimbriata fringed wattle S c 2,3,5

Acacia hispidula rough hairy wattle

Acacia juncifolia rush-like wattle

Acacia leiocalyx red-stem black wattle S/t o 2-4,

Acacia maidenii Maiden's wattle t/T o 1,2,3,5

Acacia ulicifolia prickly moses s u 2,3,4

Acacia podalyriifolia Queensland silver wattle s/S u 3

Moraceae

Ficus coronata sandpaper fig s/S c 1,2,5

Ficus obliqua small leaved fig t/T o 2

Myoporaceae

Myoporum debile amulla f u 2,3,4

Myrtaceae

Acmena smithii creek lilly pilly t c 1,2

Angophora leiocarpa rusty gum T c 2-4

Angophora woodsiana smudgee t/T o 2,3,4

Callistemon salignus paperbark-bottlebrush S/t o all

Corymbia intermedia pink bloodwood T o all

Corymbia trachyphloia brown bloodwood T c 2,3,4

Corymbia citriodora spotted gum T c 2,3,5

Corymbia henryi large-leaved spotted gum T o 5

Eucalyptus carnea broad-leaved white mahogany T o 2,3

Eucalyptus siderophloia grey ironbark TT c all

Eucalyptus baileyana Bailey's stringybark T c/o 1,3

Eucalyptus microcorys tallowwood TT c 1-3,5

Eucalyptus planchoniana Planchon's stringybark T c/o 1,3,5

Eucalyptus propinqua small-fruited grey gum TT c/o 1,2,3,5

Eucalyptus umbra broad-leaved white mahogany T c 1,3,4,5

Eucalyptus resinifera red mahogany T o 1-4,5

Eucalyptus seeana narrow-leaved red gum t/T c 2-4

Eucalyptus racemosa scribbly gum T c 1,3,4

Eucalyptus tereticornis Queensland blue gum TT o 1,3


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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME LF Ab VA

Eucalyptus tindaliae Queensland white mahogany TT c 1,2,3,5

Leptospermum polygalifolium wild may/tea-tree S c 1,2,3,

Leptospermum trinervium paper-bark wallum tea-tree S o 1,3,4,5

Lophostemon confertus brush boxt Tc o all

Lophostemon suaveolens swamp box t/T c all

Melaleuca linariifolia flax-leaf paperbark S/t u 2

Melaleuca quinquenervia paper-barked tea-tree t/T c/o 1,2,4

Syzygium australe scrub cherry/lilly pilly t o 1

Oleaceae

Notelaea longifolia veiny-leaved mock-olive S/t o 1,2,3,5

Notelaea ovata netted-leaved mock-olive

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata creeping oxalis f o all

Pittosporaceae

Bursaria spinosa blackthorn S c 1-5,

Pittosporum revolutum rusty-leaved laurel s/S o 1,2,3,5

Polygonaceae

Persicaria attenuata water pepper aq o 1

Persicaria strigosum white water pepper aq o 1

Proteaceae

Banksia integrifolia coastal banksia t u 1

Hakea florulenta Tom's blush s c 1,2,4

Lomatia silaifolia crinkle bush s o 1

Persoonia cornifolia horn-leaf geebung S/t u 1,2

Persoonia sericea silky-leaved geebung f/s o 2,3,4

Xylomelum salicinum coastal woody pear S/t r 1

Rhamnaceae

Alphitonia excelsa red ash/soap tree t c all

Rosaceae

Rubus moluccanus molucca bramble l/s o 1,2,5

Rubus rosifolius native raspberry l/s u 1,2,3,

Rubiaceae

Pomax umbellata pomax f o all

Rutaceae

Boronia rosmarinifolia forest boronia s o 2,3,4

Santalaceae

Exocarpos cupressiformis native cherry S u 1

Sapindaceae

Dodonaea triquetra hop bush s c 1

Jagera pseudorhus foam bark tree t o 2,5

Solanaceae

Solanum stelligerum devil's needles s u 2,5

Thymelaeaceae

Pimelia linifolia slender rice flower f o 1,2

Wikstroemia indica bootlace bush s o 1,2

Ulmaceae

Trema tomentosa poison peach s/S o all

Umbelliferae

Centella asiatica Indian pennywort f o 1,2

Violaceae

Hybanthus enneaspermus orange spade flower f o 1-4

Hybanthus monopetalus blue lady's slipper f u 1,2,3

Viola hederacea native violet f o 1,2


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KURABY ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION REPORT

BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME LF Ab VA

Vitaceae

Cayratia clematidea slender grape l o 1,2,3,5

Cissus antarctica native grape l o 1,2,5

Cissus hypoglauca five-leaf water vine l c 1,2,3,5


References

Catterall, C.P. (1993a). `Report on the Conservation Values of the "Paratz Land" within Karawatha Forest, Brisbane." Report to the Brisbane City Council.

Galbraith, Jean (1977) `Wild Flowers of South-East Australia' Collins Field Guide, Sydney - London.

Kordas, G., Coutts, R.H & Catterall, C.P. (1993) `The Vegetation of Karawatha Forest and its Significance in the South East Queensland Landscape' Report prepared for the Karawatha Forest Protection Society

Sinclair, L. Jermyn, D. Preston & Catterall, C. (1993) `Status and Change of Native Vegetation in South-East Queensland 1974-1989.' SEQ 2001, QDHLGP, Brisbane.

Thompson, E.J. (1993) `Description and Evaluation of the Vegetation on the Paratz Land, Stretton.' Report prepared for the Karawatha Forest Protection Society

Thompson, E.J. (1994) `The Vegetation of the Koala Bushland Coordinated Conservation Area, S.E. Queensland.' Report prepared for Logan City Council.

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